Cronos RE:PAIR, Is a nutritional supplement formulated on the basis of natural principles that work synergistically and in a complementary way, to protect and support the mitochondria for an anti-aging, antioxidant and rejuvenating action.
Is a particularly balanced formulation composed of CoQ10 200 mg, α-lipoic acid 200 mg, the chaga fruit (Innotus obliquus) extract with 25% of beta-glucans, vitamin E, dihydroquercetin, vitamin B3, zinc, manganese, copper and selenium.
Cronos RE:PAIR reduces the free radicals that are present in the body, promote the depurative physiological process in the body, helps to moisture the skin and makes the skin more elastic and helps to reduce the wrinkles and acne. It also improves the immune system and heart health and to prevent neurological, motor and dysmetabolic degenerative diseases. Two capsules a day of Cronos RE:PAIR are recommended to increase the quality of the skin.
Mitochondria play a vital role in the skin and mitochondrial dysfunction induces skin aging.
The skin is a high turnover organ, and its constant renewal depends on the rapid proliferation of its progenitor cells. The energy requirement for these metabolically active cells is met by mitochondrial respiration, an ATP generating process that is located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Not surprisingly, the mitochondria are the primary organelle affected during chronological and UV-induced skin aging, the phenotypic manifestations of which are the direct consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Some common and rare skin disorders have a mitochondrial involvement and include dermal manifestations of primary mitochondrial diseases as well as congenital skin diseases caused by damaged mitochondria. Chronic UV exposure induces nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative stress in the skin cells, which can progress to photo-aging and or skin cancer.
Mitochondrial homeostasis is preserved by the fine coordination between two opposing processes: generation of new mitochondria, by mitochondrial biogenesis, and the removal of damaged mitochondria, by mitophagy. Numerous bioactive compounds have been identified that improve mitochondrial functions and have proved effective against aged and diseased skin. Cronos RE:PAIR facilitates the biogenesis of new mitochondria providing effective doses of the two most scientifically validated nutrients to optimize the functioning of existing mitochondria.
For the first time a preparation based on this combination of herbs and active ingredients in a mixture is proposed and marketed
Cronos Beauty RE:PAIR For the first time a preparation based on this combination of herbs and active ingredients in a mixture is proposed and marketed
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and an important antioxidant. Both the antioxidant and bioenergetic roles of CoQ10 are closely associated with skin aging and other disorders. CoQ10 levels are 10-fold higher in the epidermis compared to the dermis and decrease significantly with age. Furthermore, several studies have shown that topical application of CoQ10 on photo-aged skin ameliorates the phenotypic signs of aging and restores mitochondrial function1
Marcheggiani et al.2 recently showed that CoQ10 inhibition in human dermal fibroblasts triggered oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to premature “aging” of the cells in vitro.
α-Lipoic acid exists naturally within the mitochondria and is called the universal antioxidant because it is both lipo- and water soluble. It is well known that α-lipoic acid functions as an essential co-factor of the mitochondrial multi-enzyme complex and thus plays an important role in energy metabolism. α-Lipoic acid supplementation restores mitochondrial enzymatic activities. Currently, it is attracting attention as a nutritional supplement because of its unique antioxidant properties and broad spectra of cellular functions. Skin protection from photodamage and ageing is one of the functional applications of α-Lipoic acid3.
Chaga, Inonotus obliquus, is a mushroom belonging to the Hymenochaetaceae family; Chaga contains polysaccharides with antioxidant action but above all it is a rich source of SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase)4, an enzyme with a high antioxidant power and of fundamental importance for maintaining the correct cellular redox state. Chaga has the highest amount of SOD of all nutrients discovered so far, up to fifty times more than other medicinal mushrooms. The presence of polyphenolic compounds5,6 and polysaccharides7,8 integrates and enhances the antioxidant capacity of Chaga. Its antioxidant action can be useful in the prevention of oxidative damage from UV rays. In vivo experiments (rats) have shown the ability of Chaga to reduce skin thickening and the appearance of wrinkles induced by UV rays as well as increasing collagen synthesis9 thus helping to reduce the skin aging process. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of Chaga extracts may also have a protective role against the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases
Micro-elements complex. Zinc, manganese, copper and selenium have antioxidant effects and are involved in regulating antioxidant activities. Aging is caused by an accumulation of cellular senescence in various organs and tissues10. Therefore, the reduction of ROS is the primary goal of anti-aging therapy and the prevention of aging-related diseases.
The reductive systems in the redox balance of the human body include macromolecular antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), the thioredoxin reductase system, among others11,12. Trace elements play an important role in maintaining normal physiological activities, although they are very scarce in the human body. Selenium (Se), as an essential trace element, participates in antioxidant defense and the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the form of selenoproteins, such as GPx and thioredoxin reductase, subsequently protecting organisms against aging and aging-related diseases13 . Copper (Cu) is the third most abundant trace element in the body (75–100 mg). It can be found in almost every tissue of the body and is stored chiefly in the liver, brain, heart, kidney and muscles. Cu is an important trace element, mainly because it enables proper function of many enzymes involved in the antioxidant defence of the body (SOD), in energy production (cytochrome c oxidase), collagen synthesis (lysyl oxidase), production of haemoglobin (ceruloplasmin, Cp), melanin (tyrosinase) and myelin14,15. The human body contains 2–4 g of Zinc (Zn), which is stored in the prostate, eyes, brain, muscles, bones, kidneys and liver. In blood plasma, Zn is bound and transported by albumin (60 %) and transferrin (10 %). As transferrin also transports Fe, excessive Fe may inhibit Zn absorption and vice versa. Zn concentration in blood plasma remains relatively stable, regardless of Zn intake16. The biological functions of Zn may be grouped into three categories, namely catalytic (as a cofactor for numerous enzymes, including antioxidant enzymes), regulatory (in the immune response, wound healing, synthesis of proteins, DNA and participation in cell division), and structural (involvement in collagen synthesis) 16. Manganese (together with Cu and Zn) is one of the minerals essential for the activity of the antioxidant enzyme system (MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD). Among others, it plays a key role in catalysing the dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen17
Vitamins. The health of our skin is closely connected to vitamins, precious substances that our body is unable to synthesize and which is why we must take in with food. Due to unbalanced diets, external agents or simply because of the hectic life that we all face, some Vitamin deficiencies may emerge. Vitamin B3, also known as niacin or vitamin PP, is a water-soluble vitamin and cannot be stored in the body but must be taken regularly. The major food sources in which it can be found are peanuts, white meats (especially turkey), blue fish, whole grains and milk. Its function is necessary for cellular respiration, it promotes circulation, the functioning of the nervous system and is very important for a healthy digestive system and for the skin.
Vitamin B3 has many benefits for the skin: it has an antioxidant action and helps microcirculation, favoring well-hydrated skin and protected from free radicals.
Vitamin B3 also participates in the transformation of lipids and carbohydrates, two substances that make up the hydrolipidic film. By taking vitamin B3, the balance and well-being of the hydrolipidic barrier is maintained, the first protective layer that the skin tissue has to protect itself from external aggressive agents. vitamin B3 helps stimulate the fibroblasts in the production of collagen and this results in firmer and more elastic skin and therefore in an effective prevention of the typical imperfections of skin aging18. Vitamin B3 up-regulates epidermal ceramide synthesis with concurrent epidermal barrier benefit18. Other studies reported that Vitamin B3 helps prevent UV-induced deleterious molecular and immunological events19, inhibits transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes reduces human skin hyperpigmentation20, exerts multiple cosmetic benefits on the appearance of ageing / photodamaged skin20. Vitamin E is an essential nutrient that is receiving growing attention in dermatology because of its antioxidant properties. Whereas some antioxidants, such as glutathione or ubiquinol 10, can be synthesized by humans, vitamin E is supplied by oral intake. The main natural sources of vitamin E are fresh vegetables, vegetable oils, cereals, and nuts. A recently published study analyzing dietary data from almost 10,000 individuals suggests that the majority of men and women in the United States fail to meet the current recommendations for vitamin E intake. Oral vitamin E supplementation is recommended in the therapy of yellow nail syndrome, vibration disease, epidermolysis bullosa, cancer prevention, claudication, cutaneous ulcers, and collagen synthesis and wound healing21.
Dihydroquercetin (taxifolin) is a potent flavonoid found in onions, French maritime bark, milk thistle, tamarind seeds and Saphora japonica, with antioxidant, detoxifying, protective, regenerating and anti-edemic capillaries effects. It helps to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improve microcirculation, normalize the level of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood; prevents the development of atherosclerosis, reduces the risk of heart attack and stroke. The use of dihydroquercetin has a beneficial effect on the skin, leading to the normal synthesis of elastin and collagen; prevents the development of SARS and the exacerbation of chronic diseases of the respiratory system; promotes the regeneration of the gastric mucosa, prevents the onset of gastric and duodenal ulcers; reduces the degree of adverse effects of radium and chemotherapy. Dihydroquercetin was identified to be able to improve skin barrier function, promote normal/natural exfoliation and skin turnover, help control reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, and help maintain consistent synthesis and replacement of extracellular matrix components22.